Long Before Las Vegas – History of Gambling in the US

It’s hard not to think of the glittering lights and non-stop pace of the Las Vegas strip when you think of gambling. Twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week there are people crowded around the blackjack and roulette tables hoping to hit it big. Gambling has long been a topic that leads to heated debates for a long time. However, gambling in the United States has a history that dates us back a long time before Las Vegas came around.

Gambling can be dated back to the earliest days of settlers in the 17th century. Attitudes about gambling varied by settlements as each one was founded by different members of the British colonies. The Puritans outlawed pretty much any form of gambling including dice, cards and even private tables. There was a lot of hostility towards the thought of someone who made gambling their profession. The English on the other hand, saw gambling as a pleasant and harmless distraction from everyday life and it was a popular past time. Eventually, people came to blame the problems of the new colonies on gambling and acceptance of it waned.

Once the early 19th century rolled around, gambling was still prevalent throughout the United States but it had begun to take on new forms. Lotteries were a very popular way to raise revenue for the states. The proceeds from lottery profits were used to build public works building such as schools and churches. Another form of gambling that popped up in the 19th century was horse racing. It was not nearly as large nor as organized as horse racing today but this is the first time we see gambling taking on new forms.

As the settlers of the United States moved west, so did gambling. It began to take on a more organized form in the sense of casinos. The purpose of these establishments however was not so much to raise revenue for the community but to take advantage of those making the long trek west. During this time in the 1800s, criticism of gambling on moral grounds was increasing. Scandals throughout lottery institutions and more permanent gambling casinos that were taking advantage of people were hit hard by social reform and eventually most forms of gambling throughout the country was prohibited.

When the gold rush hit California in the mid 1800s, people were itching to spend their new found wealth and gambling found its new mecca. Gambling spread through the state like wild fire and both private and public parties were relying on the revenue. Eventually, the popular mind set against gambling made its way west to California and laws were set in place to limit gambling. By the end of the 19th century, most forms of gambling were illegal but this of course did not stop people – it simply drove them out of sight of the authorities.

Limits on gambling began to subside into the 20th century and by the time the Great Depression hit in the 1930s, the public attitude towards gambling eased up significantly. All of a sudden gambling was not seen as a crime but as a way to help stimulate the economy. Forms of gambling such as bingo and horse racing saw a huge comeback during this time period. It was also during the 1930′s that gambling as an industry was formed in the state of Nevada – by organized crime professionals. There is still a fine line to walk between the crime world and the legal political world when it comes to gambling and forms of gambling other than government regulated lotteries are illegal in most states. There will surely be another shift in how gambling is viewed in this country and there will probably never be an agreement on the moral implications of such a practice but, it is sure that gambling will continue to evolve.

Minecraft – Where Gamers Thrive!

Minecraft is an amazing game which is very popular among kids. Let’s split the word Minecraft into two, mine and craft. Mine means dig while craft means build. It is also known as a “sandbox game.”

You are supposed to build your own home on a virtual land by using 3D blocks, some more resources and most importantly your creativity. It’s a great tool to explore your imagination and know your original genius.

Elaborating

Do you love adventures? This game is perfect for you! You have to begin from scratch. You have to build a grand castle from the simplest of things available.

There are 5 gameplay modes available:

Survival mode- Here, the player has to build his secure world, find ways to protect it and take care of oneself.

Creative mode- This is where you are presented with unlimited resources and also an ability to fly!

Adventure mode- In this mode, you can use custom maps and not assign or destroy any blocks with tools.

Spectator mode- You can fly around shooting any block, I mean the video-shooting one, but cannot destroy any.

Hardcore mode- This is a difficult mode. On the death of the player, the world created is deleted as well. When he dies on a Minecraft server set to hardcore mode, he is permanently banned from that server too. You might be wondering what is a Minecraft server? They are multiple types of servers that allow you to play online or using LAN with your co-gamers.

You can also make some changes off record. They are called Minecraft modes. You can add some extra things, like an animal and it gives the player more powers.

Target audience

When we were small, we used to think being big is great! As we grew, we understood that it’s just an illusion. Now, we crave for those precious days. No tension, no worries. Nostalgia! Anyways, this game targets children of this age group, where they are in a stance or in-between childhood and adolescence, usually 13 and above.

Why is it so well-known?

Secret revealed!

There are two kinds of boys. The first types are those who you would find easily approachable, flirting with girls or completely extrovert and type two are those who like sitting at home, playing games. And unfortunately, type two is more as compared to type one. That’s the secret!

This doesn’t mean girls don’t play Minecraft games, maybe they are comparatively less in number. Saying Minecraft games is not appropriate though! It’s a culture in itself. Instead, you can say there are different things similar to Minecraft.

Also, Minecraft has no strings attached. It is inexhaustible. Your imagination can go beyond limits and it gives you that flexibility of creating a fancy and attractive house, castle, farm and much more.

Is it worth playing?

Yes, Minecraft is really good when it comes to improving your management and organizational skills and exploring your creativity. It’s a great choice to kill time! When you play with your friends, it builds team spirit in you.

It is recommended for autistic and ADHD kids who can create new friends, communicate and improve their social skills. There is a Minecraft server specially for these Special children too!

It’s a trendy way to learn, and is also implemented at schools too! They are trying something new, out of the box! How fun would that be!

Conclusion

Are you a gamer? In a good sense though. If yes, then I am sure you might be aware of Minecraftand if no, I am still sure that you have at least heard of it sometime, somewhere!

Online Games: A Bittersweet Treat

They say the human body can go without food for 3 weeks, 3 days without water, typically 7-8 minutes without air. Did you notice I just listed the 3 essentials primarily needed to sustain human beings or life for that matter? The question is why all of a sudden I decided to go all science or encyclopedia on you.

What if I was to tell you while conveniently ignoring our evolution from monkeys, we have evolved to a level where these three things are no longer the only things that we need to sustain life. Knowingly unknowingly, intentionally or unintentionally, slowly and steadily it has crawled its way as one of the fundamentals for survival. I am of course talking about mobile phones and its minions (tablets, smartwatches and stuff).

If we all be honest with ourselves, I guess 90% people will agree with me when I say that we cannot live without our mobile phones for longer than a minute. Call it a force of habit, being enslaved to them or whatever but that is the sad truth that none of us want to face. With social networking playing a pivotal role in the lives of people of all age groups, people seem as if they are infused with a need to become “cool” and as a result, the need for mobile phones has risen drastically. That vibration and sound of receiving a message have become more imperative than eating, sleeping, and all day-to-day activities.

Phantom notification syndrome (the tendency of someone to believe they got a notification when they have actually not) is not just an observation about the youth but for almost all people with a “smartphone” these days. It is as if we have been programmed to check up on our phone every minute or two for no suggestive reason. And if it is not to check up on our zero messages it is either to take a selfie, or just to console ourselves we are looking fine, or to play games. In a very rare instance, it is a task outside these 3 categories.

And if we examine objectively, after messaging/texting/tweeting/Instagramming, the next favorite thing of people is to tire out their fingers playing games.

After WhatsApp, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram this is the thing in common in all devices. So simple and yet so addictive. The craze for the online game is such that at a point even I started playing it and I don’t remember how my following month passed. I mean there cannot be a single person who does not daily get flooded with games requests daily. It’s hard to put to words as to what makes the mobile game this addictive it’s dope sound effects, its ever-increasing difficulty as you progress, its simple interface, or what, is a mystery yet to be solved. But there is one thing laid down in concrete – it’s definitely going to stay a favorite among people for a long time to come.

Reasons Why You Should Play Sudoku More

Sudoku is among the most popular brain number games. The game requires players to fill blank boxes in the puzzle using specific rules, thus pushing the brain extensively to solve. It is a good game that challenges and exercises the brain, bringing in lots of benefits too. Whereas it seems like a very difficult game that only adults can handle, there is easy Sudoku that suits children as well or beginners for that matter. If you like solving puzzles or playing other mind challenging games, then you should also consider playing Sudoku. Here are some of the benefits that come with the game making it worth trying out.

It increases focus – This game requires focusing complete attention to solving the numbers and in the end it helps improve mind wondering tendencies. By focusing clearly on the task, performance is greatly boosted and you will find that you are more alert. It is one of the reasons that the game is great even for kids.

It keeps the mind stimulated – This is because the number game keeps practicing the process of logical thinking. You also will greatly manage to improve number skills using this game.

It helps improve memory – The truth is that logic and memory do work hand in hand especially when playing this game. You will need to memorize the number and use logic to figure what the missing numbers are in the game.

It improves mental maths – This is an advantage that will work very well especially with kids. Sudoku has a way of polishing cognitive skills in children because it familiarizes them with numbers. It becomes very easy for them to work out sums without the need to write everything down and work them out.

It boosts happiness – By managing to accomplish the puzzles, you will have a happy sense of accomplishment and this keeps you happy. This is especially the case when you finally nail a difficult puzzle that gave you lots of challenges to solve.

It reduces risks of Alzheimer’s – It does this by keeping the brain active, hence lowering the risks of the condition. It is indeed very good for the brain.

It helps divert energy in a positive way – There are so things that can be done with extra time but not all of them are beneficial. In fact, most are time wasters and bring nothing positive, especially where children are concerned. This puzzle makes a very beneficial filler into that extra time and in the end it also teaches children how to be patient and never to give up.

The fact that Sudoku can be enjoyed in different levels makes it great for both children and adults. Even as a beginner, you can find puzzles that challenge you but are not necessarily difficult, so you can move up the levels according to how comfortable you are and how far you are willing to challenge your mind. The many benefits definitely make the brain game worth playing.

Online Gambling Debts – How to Deal With the Causes and Effects of Online Gambling Debts

One thing there is no shortage of on the internet is opportunities to gamble. We are spoilt for choice, whether your fancy is for betting on sports, playing virtual card games or bingo. One of the things that makes internet gambling so potentially dangerous is that it is easily available for 24 hours a day. The real danger comes when you combine this factor with the fact that it is so easy to feel detached from the reality of money spent online. Gradually racking up a debt online does not feel the same as handing over hard earned cash from our wallet, so it is that much easier to lose track of how your online spending is mounting up.

For these reasons, debt problems from internet gambling are on the increase. In this article I hope to clarify some of the legal issues around online gambling, as well as providing some advice on dealing with the underlying problem and the debts that result from it.

Legal Issues Around Gambling Debts

When we talk about debt from online gambling it is important to be clear about the nature of the debt, because who the money is owed to does make a difference. People are often unsure about the legality of debts from online gambling. In the UK you can gamble legally on credit and incur a debt, but this debt is not then enforceable through the law.

However, there is an important point to make here, which is that this only applies when you are using credit extended by the company offering the gambling (casino, bookie, etc). If you use a credit card company to pay for internet gambling, that is a legally enforceable debt the same as it would be in any other circumstance, because you have borrowed money from the credit card company, not the casino. It is now against the law in the US to use a credit card to pay for online gambling.

You will find that many credit cards will regard a payment to an internet gambling website as a cash advance. This is then clearly borrowing money from the card company and the debt you incur can be pursued through legal action. If you do use a credit card to pay for online gambling this way, you should be aware that cash advances on credit cards are almost always charged at a much higher rate of interest than normal credit for purchases.

How To Deal With Debts Caused By Gambling

In dealing with gambling debts, there are two separate issues to tackle. One is the debt itself, and the other is the habit of gambling that led to the debt. Even if the debt is dealt with, it is likely to build up again if the root cause is not tackled too. Let us first consider the problem of paying off the debt.

The principles for tackling debt are nearly always the same, irrespective of the causes of the debt. To permanently deal with debt you should not be considering borrowing more money or paying anyone to deal with your debt for you. These courses of action are likely to deepen your debt in the long run.

With a little advice, you can deal with your debts yourself, by contacting your creditors and agreeing terms for repayment that you can afford. There is clearly more to it than that, but it is beyond the scope of this particular article. The process is straightforward and allows you to take back control of your finances.

Factors Leading To Internet Gambling Debts

It may help to have an understanding of why some people can become addicted to online gambling. The following are often contributory factors:

Gambling can be thrilling, leading to an adrenalin rush and feelings that we want to recreate time and again.

Many addictive gamblers think that they can win money and that this will solve all their other problems. It actually just leads to more problems by creating debt, which can then make it seem even more important to win the money, creating a vicious circle.

Addiction to gambling can actually be a mental disorder, which can lead to a compulsive need to gamble.

Being addicted to online gambling is often associated with other personal difficulties, including depression and stress.

Online Gambling Debts – The Warning Signs You may have a problem if you can answer yes to any of the following questions:

When you are not gambling, do you think about gambling and how you are going to get back to it?

Have you ever missed work because of online gambling?

Do you feel the need to gamble again after winning or losing?

Is the length of time you spend on gambling getting longer and have you ever spent longer online than you thought you had?

Are you secretive about your gambling with family or friends and do you dislike other people bringing it up?

Practical Steps To Tackle Online Gambling Addiction If you think you may have a problem with online gambling, here are a few simple steps you can take to begin to reduce or stop the habit:

Be open with friends and family and seek help with the problem.

Cancel any accounts you have with websites for online gambling.

Consider using software that blocks your access to online gambling websites.

Games Can Be Much More Useful Than You Give It Credit For

The age old sayings have always said that games are the best way to keep you away from complete dumbness and boredom.

Games are the perfect sort of escape from a monotonous life and it helps to refresh your brains from extreme tiredness and same old routine.

In today’s world, video games have risen to an unexpected level of entertainment. It has gained a lot of popularity and has come up with different kinds of variations in its content.

With technology speeding up in lighting speed, Video Games have created quite a name for itself amidst the younger generation and it happens to have a lot of health benefits as well.

1. A healthy shot for the development of your vision

A lot of discoveries and research by scientists have led to the belief that there are certain games which if played in moderation can help you in improving your eye sight for the better. Do not bend more towards straining your eyes, but a moderate amount of times spent focusing and enjoying video games was seen to get a minimal amount of improvement in the affected eye. It has been heard saying lot that watching too much of television is harmful for the vision, but in the case of video games, the outcome is opposite but again it should be done in moderation and the limit should not be exceeded.

2. Getting the crowd to like knowing about the history of places and people

Some of the video games involve historical excerpts and references in their video games. A lot of these games use a historical background to create a story around the game so that it comes out in a flow. These uses of historical characters and places can get kids excited to know more about such historical facts and gain their interest. Thus these video games are a sort of educational inspiration as well to spark the interest regarding history amidst the players.

3. Helps in getting some physical exercises done

There are certain games that would require you to participate a lot more and get your entire body involved thus indulging in a lot of bodily movements. However there are some games in which even a simple handheld controller would drive you towards some physical activity. Certain sports games such as football, basket ball, and long tennis can motivate and help the children to practice and enjoy the same skills outdoors as well. So it is not like it is only limited to indoor activities or indoor involvement.

When The Fun In Gambling Is No Longer Fun

Gambling is all fun and games until you hit the point where you cease seeing the fun in it, or you become irredeemably addicted.

Admittedly, most people do not see it coming. They start gambling for very noble reasons including,

1. The need to take time away from work and family pressures
2. Escape route from depressing thoughts on other issues.
3. Hopes of winning a fortune and living lavishly ever after
4. To bring a tinge of excitement into their otherwise dull lives
5. A chance to go out there, socialize and make new friends.

As you can see from the above points, no one anticipates that gambling will grow into the Frankenstein that now threatens to push them off the sanity cliff. A lot of people are able to keep their gambling under rein. They do it for fun, to pass some time and to socialize. Others lose it completely. They become slaves to online and offline gambling. It throws their lives off-balance. They start putting more time and money into gambling, and they gradually neglect other aspects of their lives.

At this point, problem gamblers look back at their lives and get surprised at how and when it happened. For a lot of people, the problem starts with a shift in mentality. A big loss or a big win, and you are hooked. You start gambling more money than you had planned to spend on gambling, you invest a lot of time in the casinos and before you know it, you are a slave to gambling. You can’t eat, sleep nor breathe without thinking gambling.

To help you understand how gambling addiction works, I have analyzed some of the most common factors that pull people deeper and deeper into addiction.

1. Illusion that You Can be in command of Chance
No one can control chance. It doesn’t favor anyone, smart or otherwise. Unfortunately many problem gamblers think that they can manage to overturn their luck on the tables through sheer power of the mind. They have this skewed illusion that they can win if only they can learn the tricks of the game. They spent hours on end in the casinos trying to perfect their game. They fail to acknowledge the fact that gambling is 100% chance and not something to be learned. There are no tricks and knowledge that will all of a suddenly overturn the tables to your favor.

2. The Lure of the Jackpot
Winning a few hands on the tables can make you feel unconquerable. Everyone loves winning, and science has proved that people remember their victories more than they remember their losses. Fortunately, or probably unfortunately in this case, new gamblers have what is commonly referred as ‘beginner’s luck’. They begin their gambling hobbies on the right foot. They become obsessed with the idea of winning the jackpot.

3. Faith of Changing Luck
In life, we are encouraged to get up after every fall. We will make it in the end. We will accomplish our goals if we do not quit. After all, who wants to quit while the gold vein could be just a few inches away. There is only one place where this advice does not apply. If your quests are governed by pure luck, there is very little chance that you will ever make it. The statistics are open for anyone who wants to take a look. Gambling only ends up in massive losses, debts and frayed social relationships. There is no better time to quit than now. Lady Luck will not smile at you anytime soon.

How To Know If You Are Addicted To Gambling
Although there are clear pointers that indicate you are going down the addiction lane, it can be extremely difficult to identify them if you do not know what they are. This is probably the saddest thing about addiction. We never know we are addicted until we take a step back and look at ourselves in hindsight, at which time the damage has already been done.

In this section, we will discuss the 5 major red flags to watch out for.

1. You Just Can’t Stop
Remember the wise Gambler who Kenny Rogers sings about? Every wise gambler knows when to hold and when to fold. Compulsive gamblers on the other hand do not have limits. They will gamble everything they have thinking that they are having bouts of fun, when in actuality they are driven by compulsions beyond their control.

2. Gambling with Money Not Meant for Fun
Problem gamblers will gamble with money that they can’t stand to lose. They do not have a set gambling budget and will often risk money meant for important things such medical bills and other utility bills.

3. Gambling to Win or to Recover Losses
If you find yourself gambling more for the sole purpose of hitting the jackpot than for fun, you need to reevaluate yourself. Same case applies if the main driving force behind gambling is to recover losses that you had suffered earlier.

4. Obsessively Thinking about Gambling
If you eat, drink and sleep thinking about gambling, you might already be too deep in the trench.

5. Borrowing to Finance Gambling
Have you ever borrowed money to finance gambling? Chances are if you have, things are not looking so good.

What other key pointers do you think indicate a problem with gambling? I believe that you know them better. You know what triggers that red flag and siren at the back of your mind. A lot of gamblers realize the symptoms that point to problematic gambling in their lives, yet stopping becomes a quagmire.

Fortnite Basics

Fortnite is the name of a hit new game that was released back in September of 2017. When it was first released there was very little hype about it and did not receive much attention at its initial release. Due to that simple fact, the company that created it decided to offer a portion of the game for free and since the game has become probably the most popular in the world now. There are many aspects that make the game unique.

First off, it is a third person shooter but very animated in its positioning so not very serious in a manner of terms. Along with being a shooter game you are able to harvest materials such as wood, brick and metal and craft different building structures like ramps, walls, floors, and really anything imaginable. The point of the game is to be the last player or squad standing. The game starts out with one hundred players all dropping in from a school bus held in the air by a hot air balloon to a giant island with different little towns and places marked on the map. Each person drops off of the bus and once they land they loot for weapons and shield before someone else finds the loot first. There are many different types of weapons like shotguns, rifles, rocket launchers and many other different weaponry to find. Players open up golden chests that give you multiple items usable in game like potions and weapons as mentioned above. Once a player has the loot they want they must move into the storm circle as the outside storm closes in slowly and forces players together. The storm will slowly decrease your health if you are caught in it till eventually your health runs out. Once your health runs out there is no respawning into the same game as you must start over from the beginning.

The ultimate goal is to be the last one standing and achieve a “Victory Royale”. It is a difficult feat as there are many highly skilled players out there that play and compete viciously on a regular basis. The key that has been found by most of these highly skilled gamers is to be able to build more efficiently and quickly in the heat of a gun fight. These builders are usually the most skilled of players and tend to win more of the games they play. Inexperienced players that are still learning the overall flow of the game do not usually find their first win till many games played. As time has gone on the developers of the game have added special limited time game modes to the mix as well to keep the game interesting and their die-hard players entertained and not becoming bored after so long. The mode that has become a favorite of many is the high explosive mode which takes away all normal weapons and leaves players wandering around the map finding grenade launchers and rocket launchers and a few other specialty weapons to win the game with. These additional modes provide a skill change and allow newer players to become more accustomed to items that are less prevalent in the normal mode and allows them to experiment more freely so they are not unprepared in the regular mode.

Android Games – Tips to Get the Best of It

Do you wish to kill your free time when the only company you have is your Android phone? Did you know that Android games are the most interesting and fun filled stuff to cram your phone with? Go through this article to know more about these games and their fun factors.

Android games are diversified into many categories; informational, educational, shooting games, puzzles, sports, racing, augmented reality games, location-based games and more. All these types are available for both high end and low-end Android phones.

There are low specification games for those low-end models so that you can enjoy them in your budget phones as well. This includes the lesser graphics content games that does not take much of your space. It is suitable for Android phones with low GPUs and smaller screen size as well.

Both freemium and premium games are available in the stores. Premium are paid-for games and freemium is the free games which often contain in-app purchase at certain levels. So it is advisable to monitor if someone other than you (like your kid) is using your phone; don’t click on those purchase options without knowledge.

To enjoy the best high graphics and well-designed gameplay, it is better to get a high-end model with a bigger screen and good GPU. Even you can enjoy those high-quality gaming effects by increasing the performance of your low spec, budget Android phones.

First and the simplest method to increase your low-end smartphone performance is by killing the applications that are running in the background before you start the game. You can use several task killer applications for this, as well. Most of the Android phones contain many applications that are of no use to an average user. These applications can be disabled which in turn increases the performance of your phone.

All you need to do is, go to settings, select ‘apps’, then select the applications to be disabled and click the ‘disable’ button. All these applications can be enabled in the future if you need them. Usually, the uninstalled applications or your internet browser often leaves behind junk files. These cache data often reduces your phone performance. To clear these data, go to ‘settings’ and click ‘storage option’, then select the cached data button and press okay.

Always opt for a class 10 SD card to increase your phone’s gaming performance. Using these SD cards will increase the read and write speed and hence reduces the loading time and other lags that any high graphics game would demand. Those rooted Android phones have more facilities to increase their performance. The background task killer applications work to their fullest only if they are in a rooted Android version. Seeder software can be installed in a rooted Android phone, which reduces the lag during switching between applications.

Online Gambling

Internet Casinos Inc. (ICI), the world’s first online casino, started operating from August 18, 1995, with 18 different games. Since then more than 1,400 websites, mostly domiciled in small Caribbean islands, have given rise to an industry that grosses over $3 billion a year. In fact no business on the Internet earns more revenue than online gambling. Out of the estimated 14.5 million online gamblers, almost 30 per cent are from Asia.

A bet can be placed in minutes. Anyone with a credit card can set up an offshore currency account with a gambling site, leaving them free to place bets on sporting events like Wimbledon, cricket, horse racing and Formula One, or join a virtual casino to play slot machines, roulette, blackjack, poker etc. Companies like Flutter and Betmart accept bets on anything from who is going to win the Nobel Prize to whether Madonna is getting a divorce or not. Bets can range from a nickel to thousands of dollars and according to whether you win or lose the amount is automatically adjusted to your account. The final balance can then either be mailed to you or left for future bets.

The law relating to online gambling in India needs to be understood within the country’s socio-cultural context. At the outset, gambling, although not absolutely prohibited in India, does not receive express encouragement by policy makers. The Indian organized gambling industry is estimated to be worth around US$8 billion. While stringent laws have checked the proliferation of casinos and high street gaming centres as in many other countries, barring the state of Goa, the lottery business remains the most post popular form of gambling.

Though gambling is not illegal, it is a highly controlled and regulated activity. Modern India is a quasi-federal Constitutional democracy and the powers to legislate are distributed at the federal as well as the state levels. Gambling features in List II of the Constitution of India, this implies that the state governments have the authority to enact laws in order to regulate gambling in the respective states. Thus, there is no single law governing gambling in the entire country. Different states have different laws governing gambling in addition to the laws that have an application across the country. While some states have banned lotteries, other states allow state government lotteries marketed and distributed in other lottery playing and promoting states through private entities.

Regulation of gambling

The courts have defined gambling as ‘the payment of a price for a chance to win a prize’. The dominant element of skill or chance shall determine the nature of the game. A game may be deemed to be gambling if the element of chance or luck predominates in deciding its outcome. As a result, Indian courts have held that betting on horse racing and a few card games are not gambling. The right to undertake the business of gambling and lotteries is not considered as a fundamental right protected by the Constitution of India. It may however be pointed out that the state government run lotteries make significant contributions to the state exchequer of several state governments and the Union government, and hence there is a resistance to complete prohibition.

The following legislation is pertinent to gambling:

The Public Gaming Act, 1867

This Act provides punishment for public gambling and for keeping of a ‘common gaming house’. This Act also authorises the state governments to enact laws to regulate public gambling in their respective jurisdictions. The penal legislations in respective states have been amended in accordance with their policy on gambling. However, this legislation does not have any direct impact on online gambling unless a wide interpretation is given to the definition of common gaming house so as to include virtual forums as well.

The Indian Contract Act, 1872 (ICA)

The ICA is a codified umbrella legislation that governs all commercial contracts in India. Under the ICA, a wagering contract is the one which cannot be enforced. The Act lays down; ‘Agreements by way of wager are void, and no suit shall be brought for recovering anything alleged to be won on any wager or entrusted to any person to abide by the result of any game or other uncertain event on which any wager is made’. Gambling, lottery and prize games have held to be wagering contracts and thus void and unenforceable. While a wagering contract is not illegal, it cannot be enforced in a court of law. Thus, the courts will not entertain any cause of action that arises out of a wagering contract.

Lotteries (Regulation) Act, 1998

This Act provides a framework for organizing lotteries in the country. Under this Act, the state governments have been authorized to promote as well as prohibit lotteries within their territorial jurisdiction. This Act also provides for the manner in which the lotteries are to be conducted and prescribes punishment in case of breach of its provision. Lotteries not authorized by the state have been made an offence under the Indian Penal Code. Several non-lottery playing states, like Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, have prohibited the sale of other state-government lotteries under this Act.

Indian Penal Code, 1860

Section 294A deals with keeping lottery office. It says that whoever keeps any office or place for the purpose of drawing any lottery not being a State lottery or a lottery authorised by the State Government, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine, or with both.

And whoever publishes any proposal to pay any sum, or to deliver any goods, or to do or forbear doing anything for the benefit of any person, on any event or contingency relative or applicable to the drawing of any ticket, lot, number or figure in any such lottery, shall be punished with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees.

Internet gambling

The law related to gambling is also applicable to online gambling. All gambling contracts are considered to be wagering contracts and it is not possible to enforce such contracts under the ICA, detailed above.

As pointed out earlier, the online lottery is the most popular form of internet gambling in India. Most companies marketing and distributing or conducting state government-sponsored lotteries through the internet are not allowed to sell their services in the states that banned lotteries. In most cases, these marketers and distributors limit their online services to consumers who are residents of the states where a lottery is permissible. Notwithstanding the fact there has been no reported case of breach by any company promoting online lotteries, most of these companies (as a safeguard) seek an undertaking from their consumers relating to their residence.

There have been instances where one state has banned the lottery of other states, including online lotteries. In a recent case, the Karnatka High Court upheld the decision of the Karnataka government to make itself a ‘lottery free zone’ by imposing a ban on lotteries of all other states, including online lotteries under the Lotteries (Regulation) Act 1998. The state government, in this case, directed the closure of the terminals and kiosks selling the online lotteries.

Enforcement over foreign jurisdictions

If the websites are hosted and operated from outside India, it may be difficult for the Indian authorities to issue any directive to close them down or prohibit their access without using its blocking powers under the ITA. The authorities have little to worry about, as Indian foreign exchange laws do not permit remittances outside India for gambling related activity, such as the purchase of lottery tickets, football pools and sweepstakes. As a result, a gambling website hosted outside India aiming at receiving money from within India cannot do so through legal channels.